Appendix B


The extensive references listed in this Appendix cite the scientific studies, medical news reports, and research papers used in this book; others provide background information on intermittent fasting, nutrition, hormones, supplements, women’s health, and other issues covered here.


Patterson, R. E., et al. 2015. Intermittent Fasting and Human Metabolic Health. The Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 115: 1203–1212.

Chapter 1: Why Intermittent Fasting?

Alirezaei, M., et al. 2010. Short-Term Fasting Induces Profound Neuronal Autophagy. Autophagy 6: 702–710.
Antoni, R., et al. 2018. A Pilot Feasibility Study Exploring the Effects of a Moderate Time-Restricted Feeding Intervention on Energy Intake, Adiposity and Metabolic Physiology in Free-Living Human Subjects. Journal of Nutritional Science 7: 1-6.
Baba, H., et al. 1995. Glycerol Gluconeogenesis in Fasting Humans. Nutrition [11:14]9-153.
Bellisle, F., et al. 1997. Meal Frequency and Energy Balance. British Journal of Nutrition 77 Supplement 1: S57-S70.
Cameron, J.D., et al. 2010. Increased Meal Frequency Does Not Promote Greater Weight Loss in Subjects Who Were Prescribed an 8-Week Equi-Energetic Energy-Restricted Diet. British Journal of Nutrition 103: 1098-1101.
Carroll B., et al. 2013. Autophagy and Ageing: Implications for Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases. Essays in Biochemistry [55:11]9-131.
Chen, X., et al. 2018. Autophagy in Stem Cell Biology: A Perspective on Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Differentiation. Stem Cells International, eCollection 2018.
Cignarella, F., et al. 2018. Intermittent Fasting Confers Protection in CNS Autoimmunity by Altering the Gut Microbiota. Cell Metabolism 27: 1222-1235.
Collier, R. 2013. Intermittent Fasting: The Next Big Weight Loss Fad. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal 185: E321–E322.
Crovesy, L., et al. 2020. Profile of the Gut Microbiota of Adults with Obesity: A Systematic Review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74: 1251-1262.
D’Arcy MS. 2020. A Review of the Chemopreventative and Chemotherapeutic Properties of the Phytochemicals Berberine, Resveratrol and Curcumin, and Their Influence on Cell Death via the Pathways of Apoptosis and Autophagy. Cell Biology International 44: 1781-1791.
Dasgupta, B., and Milbrandt, J. 2007. Resveratrol Stimulates AMP Kinase Activity in Neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 7217-7222.
de Cabo, R., and Mattson, M.P. 2019. Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Health, Aging, and Disease. New England Journal of Medicine 381: 2541-2551.
Faris, M.A,E., et al. 2012. Intermittent Fasting during Ramadan Attenuates Proinflammatory Cytokines and Immune Cells in Healthy Subjects. Nutrition Research 32: 947-955.
Faris, M.A,E., et al. 2020. Ramadan Intermittent Fasting and Immunity: An Important Topic in the Era of COVID-19. Annals of Thoracic Medicine 15: 125-133.
Forouzanfar, F., et al. 2020. Neuroprotective Effects of Curcumin through Autophagy Modulation. IUBMB Life 72: 652-664.
Galgani, J.E., et al. 2008. Metabolic Flexibility and Insulin Resistance. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism 295: E1009-E1017.
Glick, D., et al. 2010. Autophagy: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms. Journal of Pathology 221: 3-12.
Golbidi, S., et al. 2017. Health Benefits of Fasting and Caloric Restriction. Current Diabetes Reports 17: 123.
Goodpaster, B.H., and Sparks, L.M. 2017. Metabolic Flexibility in Health and Disease. Cell Metabolism 25: 1027-1036.
Guolin, L., et al. 2017. Intermittent Fasting Promotes White Adipose Browning and Decreases Obesity by Shaping the Gut Microbiota. Cell Metabolism 26: 672-685.
Hasima, N., and Ozpolat, B. 2014. Regulation of Autophagy by Polyphenolic Compounds as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy for Cancer. Cell Death & Disease 5: e1509.
Igwe, O., et al. 2020. A Review of Effects of Calorie Restriction and Fasting with Potential Relevance to Depression. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, available online, December.
Imai, S.I., and Guarente, L. 2014. NAD+ and Sirtuins in Aging and Disease. Trends in Cell Biology 24: 464-471.
Kahleova, H., et al. 2014. Eating Two Larger Meals a Day (Breakfast and Lunch) Is More Effective than Six Smaller Meals in a Reduced-Energy Regimen for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomised Crossover Study. Diabetologia 57: 1552-1560.
Kim, M.K., et al. 2018. Associations of Variability in Blood Pressure, Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations, and Body Mass Index with Mortality and Cardiovascular Outcomes in the General Population. Circulation 138: 2627–2637.
Kulovitz, M.G. et al. 2014. Potential Role of Meal Frequency as a Strategy for Weight Loss and Health in Overweight or Obese Adults. Nutrition [30:38]6-392.
Levine, B., and Kroemer, G. 2008. Autophagy in the Pathogenesis of Disease. Cell 132: 27-42
Ley, R.E., et al. 2006. Microbial Ecology: Human Gut Microbes Associated with Obesity. Nature 444: 1022-1023.
Ley, R.E., et al. 2006. Microbial Ecology: Human Gut Microbes Associated with Obesity. Nature 444: 1022-1023.
Li, Y., et al. 2016. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity. Nutrients 8: 167.
Lin, S.R., et al. 2017. Natural Compounds from Herbs that Can Potentially Execute as Autophagy Inducers for Cancer Therapy. International Journal of Molecular Science 18: 1412.
Linnane, A.W., et al. 1989. Mitochondrial DNA Mutations as an Important Contributor to Ageing and Degenerative Diseases. The Lancet 333: 642-645.
Longo, V.D., and Mattson, M.P. 2014. Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications. Cell Metabolism 19: 181-192.
Longo, V.D., et al. 2015. Interventions to Slow Aging in Humans: Are We Ready? Aging Cell 14: 497-510.
Marosi, K., et al. 2016. 3-Hydroxybutyrate Regulates Energy Metabolism and Induces BDNF Expression in Cerebral Cortical Neurons. Journal of Neurochemistry 139: 769-781.
Martin, B., et al. 2006. Caloric Restriction and Intermittent Fasting: Two Potential Diets for Successful Brain Aging. Ageing Research Reviews 5: 332–353.
Mattson, M.P., and Arumugam, T.V. 2018. Hallmarks of Brain Aging: Adaptive and Pathological Modification by Metabolic States. Cell Metabolism 27: 1176-1199.
Mergenthaler, P., et al. 2013. Sugar for the Brain: The Role of Glucose in Physiological and Pathological Brain Function. Trends in Neurosciences 36: 587-597.
Mohar, D. 2012. The Sirtuin System: The Holy Grail of Resveratrol? Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology 3: 216.
Oettle, G.J., et al. 1987. Glucose and Insulin Responses to Manufactured and Whole-Food Snacks. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45: 86-91.
Park, D., et al. 2016. Resveratrol Induces Autophagy by Directly Inhibiting mTOR through ATP Competition. Scientific Reports 6: 21772 (article number).
Price, N.L., et al. 2012. SIRT1 Is Required for AMPK Activation and the Beneficial Effects of Resveratrol on Mitochondrial Function. Cell Metabolism 15: 675-690.
Rahnasto-Rilla, M., et al. 2018. Natural Polyphenols as Sirtuin 6 Modulators. Scientific Reports 8: 4163.
Redman, L.M., et al. 2018. Metabolic Slowing and Reduced Oxidative Damage with Sustained Caloric Restriction Support the Rate of Living and Oxidative Damage Theories of Aging. Cell Metabolism 27: 805-815.
Rothschild, J., et al. 2014. Time-Restricted Feeding and Risk of Metabolic Disease: A Review of Human and Animal Studies. Nutrition Reviews 72: 308-318.
Shetty, A.K., et al. 2018. Emerging Anti-Aging Strategies – Scientific Basis and Efficacy. Aging and Disease [9:11]65-1184.
Sievert, K., et al. 2019. Effect of Breakfast on Weight and Energy Intake: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials. BMJ 364: l42.
Son, M.J., et al. 2016. Restoration of Mitochondrial NAD+ Levels Delays Stem Cell Senescence and Facilitates Reprogramming of Aged Somatic Cells. Stem Cells 34: 2840-2851.
Vargas-Ortiz, K., et al. 2019. Exercise and Sirtuins: A Way to Mitochondrial Health in Skeletal Muscle. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20: 2717.
Ward, Z.J., et al. 2019. Projected U.S. State-Level Prevalence of Adult Obesity and Severe Obesity. New England Journal of Medicine 381: 2440-2450.
Zarrinpar, A., et al. 2014. Diet and Feeding Pattern Affect the Diurnal Dynamics of the Gut Microbiome. Cell Metabolism 20: 1006-1017.
Zhu, Y., et al. 2013. Metabolic Regulation of Sirtuins Upon Fasting and the Implication for Cancer. Current Opinion in Oncology 25: 630-636.

Chapter 2: Balance Your Master Hormones

Barnoskey, A. R., et al. 2014. Intermittent Fasting vs Daily Calorie Restriction for Type 2 Diabetes Prevention: A Review of Human Findings. Translational Research 164: 302-311.
Björntorp, P., and Rosmond R. 2000. Obesity and Cortisol. Nutrition 16: 924-936.
Epel, E., et al. 2001. Stress May Add Bite to Appetite in Women: A Laboratory Study of Stress-Induced Cortisol and Eating Behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology 26: 37-49.
Espel, E.S., et al. 2000. Stress and Body Shape: Stress-Induced Cortisol Secretion Is Consistently Greater among Women with Central Fat. Psychosomatic Medicine 62: 623-632.
Fernandes, F., et al. 2020. Oxytocin and Bone Quality in the Femoral Neck of Rats in Periestropause. Scientific Reports 10: 7937.
Furmli, S., et al. 2018. Therapeutic Use of Intermittent Fasting for People with Type 2 Diabetes as an Alternative to Insulin. BMJ Case Reports, published online October 9.
Galgani, J.E., et al. 2008. Metabolic Flexibility and Insulin resistance. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism 295: E1009-1017.
Houtkooper, and R.H., Auwerx, J. 2012. Exploring the Therapeutic Space around NAD+. Journal of Cell Biology 199(2): 205-209.
Hutchison, A. T., et al. 2019. Effects of Intermittent Versus Continuous Energy Intakes on Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Risk in Women with Overweight. Obesity 27: 50–58.
Jamshed, H., et al. 2019. Early Time-Restricted Feeding Improves 24-Hour Glucose Levels and Affects Markers of the Circadian Clock, Aging, and Autophagy in Humans. Nutrients 11: 1234.
Kerem, L., et al. 2020. Oxytocin Reduces the Functional Connectivity between Brain Regions Involved in Eating Behavior in Men with Overweight and Obesity. International Journal of Obesity 44: 980-989.
Khan, N.A., et al. 2015. Mitochondrial Disorders: Challenges in Diagnosis & Treatment. Indian Journal of Medical Research 141: 13-26.
Kreitzman, S.N., et al. 1992. Glycogen Storage: Illusions of Easy Weight Loss, Excessive Weight Regain, and Distortions in Estimates of Body Composition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56(1 Supplement): 292S-293S.
Lebovitz, H.E. 2001. Insulin Resistance: Definition and Consequences. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 109 Supplement: S135-148.
Moghetti, P. 2016. Insulin Resistance and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Current Pharmaceutical Design 22: 5526-5534.
Zhang, H., et al. 2013. Treatment of Obesity and Diabetes Using Oxytocin or Analogs in Patients and Mouse Models. PLoS One 8: e61477.

Chapter 3: Trigger Your Weight-Loss Hormones

Åberg, N.D., et al. 2006. Aspects of Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Related to Neuroprotection, Regeneration, and Functional Plasticity in the Adult Brain. The Scientific World Journal 6: 53-80.
Casteneda, T., et al. 2010. Ghrelin in the Regulation of Body Weight and Metabolism. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 31: 44-60.
Clearskul, S., et al. 2008. Effect of Weight Loss and Ketosis on Postprandial Cholecystokinin and Free Fatty Acid Concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87: 1238-1246.
Cummings, D.E., et al. 2002. Plasma Ghrelin Levels after Diet-Induced Weight Loss or Gastric Bypass Surgery. New England Journal of Medicine 346: 1623-1630.
Editor. 2018. Growth Hormone, Athletic Performance, and Aging. Harvard Health Publishing, June 19.
Endocrine Society. 2010. Stomach Hormone Ghrelin Increases Desire for High-Calorie Foods, Study Finds. ScienceDaily, June 20.
Espelund, U., et al. 2005. Fasting Unmasks a Strong Inverse Association between Ghrelin and Cortisol in Serum: Studies in Obese and Normal-Weight Subjects. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90: 741-746.
Gaeini, Z., et al. 2021. Effects of Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Leptin and Adiponectin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Hormones 20: 237-246.
Gibson, A.A., et al. 2015. Do Ketogenic Diets Really Suppress Appetite? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Obesity Reviews 16: 64-76.
Hartman, M.L., et al. 1992. Augmented Growth Hormone (GH) Secretory Burst Frequency and Amplitude Mediate Enhanced GH Secretion during a Two-Day Fast in Normal Men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 74: 757-765.
Ho, K.Y., et al. 1988. Fasting Enhances Growth Hormone Secretion and Amplifies the Complex Rhythms of Growth Hormone Secretion in Man. Journal of Clinical Investigation 81: 968-975.
Liu J., et al. 2018. The Leptin Resistance. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1090: 145-163.
Merimee, T.J., and Fineberg, S.E. 1974. Growth Hormone Secretion in Starvation: A Reassessment. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 39: 385-386.
Natalucci, G., et al. 2005. Spontaneous 24-h Ghrelin Secretion Pattern in Fasting Subjects: Maintenance of a Meal-Related Pattern. European Journal of Endocrinology 152: 845-850.
Orr, J., and Davy, B. 2005. Dietary Influences on Peripheral Hormones Regulating Energy Intake: Potential Applications for Weight Management. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105: 1115-1124.
Patel, J., et al. 2002. Norepinephrine Spillover from Human Adipose Tissue before and after a 72-Hour Fast. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 87: 3373-3377.
Ravussin, E., et al. 2019. Early Time-Restricted Feeding Reduces Appetite and Increases Fat Oxidation But Does Not Affect Energy Expenditure in Humans. Obesity 27: 1244-1254.
Reimer, R.A., et al. 2010. Long-Term Dietary Restriction Influences Plasma Ghrelin and GOAT mRNA Level in Rats. Physiology and Behavior 99: 605-610.
Sumithran, P., et al. 2013. Ketosis and Appetite-Mediating Nutrients and Hormones after Weight Loss. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67: 759-764.
Zaunder, C., et al. 2000. Resting Energy Expenditure in Short-Term Starvation Is Increased as a Result of an Increase in Serum Norepinephrine. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71: 1511-1515.
Zhang, F., et al. 2005. Leptin: Structure, Function and Biology. Vitamins and Hormones 71: 345-372.

Chapter 4: Restore Your Sex Hormones, Thyroid, and Melatonin

Azizi, F. 1978. Effect of Dietary Composition on Fasting-Induced Changes in Serum Thyroid Hormones and Thyrotropin. Metabolism 27: 935-942.
Azizi, F. 2015. Islamic Fasting and Thyroid Hormones. International Journal of Endocrinology Metabolism 13: e29248.
Baker, J.M., et al. 2017. Estrogen-Gut Microbiome Axis: Physiological and Clinical Implications. Maturitas 1[03:45]-53.
Baker, F.C., and Driver, H.S. 2007. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and the Menstrual Cycle. Sleep Medicine 8: 613-622.
Brent, G.A. 2012. Mechanisms of Thyroid Hormone Action. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 122: 3035-3043.
Kelly, D.M., and Jones, T.H. 2013. Testosterone: A Metabolic Hormone in Health and Disease. The Journal of Endocrinology 217: R25-R45.
Klinge, C.M., 2018. Dehydroepiandrosterone Research: Past, Current, and Future. Vitamins and Hormones 108:1-28.
Marinac, C. R., et al. 2016. Prolonged Nightly Fasting and Breast Cancer Prognosis. JAMA Oncology 2: 1049-1055.
Patel. S., et al. 2018. Estrogen: The Necessary Evil for Human Health, and Ways to Tame It. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 1[02:40]3-411.
Paterni, I., et al. 2017. Risks and Benefits Related to Alimentary Exposure to Xenoestrogens. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57: 3384-3404.
Rettberg, J.R. et al. 2014. Estrogen: A Master Regulator of Bioenergetic Systems in the Brain and Body. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 35: 8-30.
Stacchiotti, A., et al. 2020. Impact of Melatonin on Skeletal Muscle and Exercise. Cells 9: 288.
Taraborrelli, S. 2015. Physiology, Production and Action of Progesterone. Acta Obstetricia Gynecologica Scandinavica. 94 Supplement 161: 8-16.
Tordjman, S., et al. 2017. Melatonin: Pharmacology, Functions and Therapeutic Benefits. Current Neuropharmacology 15: 434-443.
Uygur, M.M., et al. 2018. Thyroid Disease in the Perimenopause and Postmenopause Period. Climacteric 21: 542-548.
Weigle, D., et al. 1997. Effect of Fasting, Refeeding, and Dietary Fat Restriction on Plasma Leptin Levels. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82: 561-565.
Willcox, B.J., et al. 2007. Caloric Restriction, the Traditional Okinawan Diet, and Healthy Aging: The Diet of the World’s Longest-Lived People and Its Potential Impact on Morbidity and Life Span. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1114: 434-455.

Chapter 5: Intermittent Fasting and Your Life Stage

Allshouse, A., et al. 2018. Menstrual Cycle Hormone Changes Associated with Reproductive Aging and How They May Relate to Symptoms. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 45: 613-628.
Arbour, M.W., et al. 2021. Clinical Implications for Women of a Low-Carbohydrate or Ketogenic Diet with Intermittent Fasting. Nursing for Women’s Health 25: 139-151.
Bacciottini, L., et al. 2007. Phytoestrogens: Food or Drug? Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism 4(2):123-30.
Bartholomew, C., et al. 2019. Intermittent Fasting Lifestyle and Incidence of Heart Failure and Myocardial Infarction in Cardiac Catheterization Patients. Circulation 140: A10043.
Boivin, D.B., and Shechter, A. 2010. Sleep, Hormones, and Circadian Rhythms throughout the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Women and Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. International Journal of Endocrinology, e-publication January 18.
Delamater, L., and Santoro, N. 2018. Management of the Perimenopause. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 61: 419-432
Farage, M.A., et al. 2008. Cognitive, Sensory, and Emotional Changes Associated with the Menstrual Cycle: A Review. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 278: 299-307.
Geiker, N.R.W., et al. 2016. A Weight-Loss Program Adapted to the Menstrual Cycle Increases Weight Loss in Healthy, Overweight, Premenopausal Women: A 6-Mo Randomized Controlled Trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 104: 15-20.
Goyal, M.S., et al. 2019. Persistent Metabolic Youth in the Aging Female Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116: 3251-3255.
Guthrie, J. R., et al. 1996. Hot Flushes, Menstrual Status, and Hormone Levels in a Population-Based Sample of Midlife Women. Obstetrics and Gynecology 88: 437–442.
Kauffman, A.S., and Hoffmann, H.M. 2020. Editorial: Hormone Release Patterns in Mammals. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 5[07:11]0781.
Kontic-Vucinic, O., et al. 2006. Micronutrients in Women’s Reproductive Health: I. Vitamins. International Journal of Fertility and Women’s Health [51:10]6-115.
Kontic-Vucinic, O., et al. 2006. Micronutrients in Women’s Reproductive Health: II. Minerals and Trace Elements. International Journal of Fertility and Women’s Health 51: 116-124.
Meczekalski, B., et al. 2014. Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea and Its Influence on Women’s Health. Academic Psychiatry 37: 1049-1056.
Mihm, M., et al. 2011. The Normal Menstrual Cycle in Women. Animal Reproduction Science 124: 229-236.
Prior, J.C. 1998. Perimenopause: The Complex Endocrinology of the Menopausal Transition. Endocrine Reviews 19: 397–428.
Prior, J.C., and Hitchcock, C.L. 2011. The Endocrinology of Perimenopause: Need for a Paradigm Shift. Frontiers in Bioscience 1: 474-486.
Santoro, N., et al. 1996. Characterization of Reproductive Hormonal Dynamics in the Perimenopause. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81: 1495–1501.
Santoro, N. 2005. The Menopausal Transition. The American Journal of Medicine 118 Supplement 12B: 8-13.

Chapter 6: So – What Do I Eat?

Assunção, M.L., et al. 2009. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil on the Biochemical and Anthropometric Profiles of Women Presenting Abdominal Obesity. Lipids 44: 593-601.
Blasbalg, T.L., et al. Changes in Consumption of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in the United States during the 20th Century. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93: 950-962.
Della Corte, K.W., et al. 2018. Effect of Dietary Sugar Intake on Biomarkers of Subclinical Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intervention Studies. Nutrients 10: 606.
Dirlewanger, M., et al. 2000. Effects of Short-Term Carbohydrate or Fat Overfeeding on Energy Expenditure and Plasma Leptin Concentrations in Healthy Female Subjects. International Journal of Obesity and Metabolic Related Disorders 24: 1413-1418.
Gasior, M., et al. 2006. Neuroprotective and Disease-Modifying Effects of the Ketogenic Diet. Behavioural Pharmacology 17: 431-439.
Gower, B.A., and Goss, A.M. 2015. A Lower-Carbohydrate, Higher-Fat Diet Reduces Abdominal and Intermuscular Fat and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Nutrition 145: 177S-183S.
Hirsch, J. 2018. Arsenic, Lead Found in Popular Protein Supplements. Consumer Reports,
Ivy, J.L. 1998. Glycogen Resynthesis after Exercise: Effect of Carbohydrate Intake. International Journal of Sports Medicine 19 Supplement 2: S142-S145.
Kreitzman, S.N., et al. 1992. Glycogen Storage: Illusions of Easy Weight Loss, Excessive Weight Regain, and Distortions in Estimates of Body composition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56 (1 Supplement): 292S-293S.
Manninen, A.H. 2006. Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diets and Preservation of Muscle Mass. Nutrition and Metabolism 3: 9.
Muszyńska, B., et al. 2018. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Edible Mushrooms: A Review. Food Chemistry 243: 373-381.
Myles, I.A. 2014. Fast Food Fever: Reviewing the Impacts of the Western Diet on Immunity. Nutrition Journal 13: 61.
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Teicholz, N., and Thurlow, C. 2021. The Science and Politics of Saturated Fats. How We Came to Believe that Fat is Bad for Our Health. (Ep.134).
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Chapter 7: How to Supplement While Fasting

Eisenberg, T., et al. 2016. Cardioprotection and Lifespan Extension by the Natural Polyamine Spermidine. Nature Medicine 22: 1428–1438.
Fan, X., et al. 2015. Berberine Alleviates ox-LDL Induced Inflammatory Factors by Up-Regulation of Autophagy via AMPK/mTOR Signaling Pathway. Journal of Translational Medicine 13: 92.
Gomes, A.P., et al. 2012. Berberine Protects against High Fat Diet-Induced Dysfunction in Muscle Mitochondria by Inducing SIRT1-Dependent Mitochondrial Biogenesis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Molecular Basis of Disease 1822: 185-195.
Gröber, U., et al. 2015. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy. Nutrients 7: 8199-8226.
Hou, Q., et al. 2020. Berberine: A Traditional Natural Product with Novel Biological Activities. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 26: 20-27.
Jayachandran, M., et al. 2017. A Critical Review on Health Promoting Benefits of Edible Mushrooms through Gut Microbiota. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18: 1934.
Khan, N., and Mukhtar, H. 2018. Tea Polyphenols in Promotion of Human Health. Nutrients 11: 39.
Lee, Y.S., et al. 2006. Berberine, A Natural Plant Product, Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase with Beneficial Metabolic Effects in Diabetic and Insulin-Resistant States. Diabetes 55: 2256-2264.
Madeo, F., et al. 2018. Spermidine in Health and Disease. Science 359: eaan2788.
Mathur, K., et al. 2020. Effect of Artificial Sweeteners on Insulin Resistance among Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 9: 69–71.
Morais, J.B.S. ,et al. 2017. Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in Humans: A Systematic Review. Nutrition 38: 54-60.
Pietrocola, F., et al. 2014. Coffee Induces Autophagy In Vivo. Cell Cycle 13: 1987-1994.
Prasanth, M.I., et al. 2019. A Review of the Role of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) in Antiphotoaging, Stress Resistance, Neuroprotection, and Autophagy. Nutrients 11: 474.
Sato, Y., et al. 1989. Possible Contribution of Green Tea Drinking Habits to the Prevention of Stroke. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 157: 337-343.
Wilhelm, Z., et al. 2004. Diagnosis of Magnesium Deficiency in the Body, Personal Experience. Vnirni Lekarstvi 50: 291-299.
Yang, C.S. 1993. Tea and Cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85: 1038-1049.

Chapter 8: Preparing for a Successful Fast

Baker, F.C., and Driver, H.S. 2007. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and the Menstrual Cycle. Sleep Medicine 8: 613-622.
Catenacci, V.A., et al. 2016. A Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Zero-Calorie Alternate-Day Fasting to Daily Caloric Restriction in Adults with Obesity. Obesity 24: 1874-1883.
Gardner, S., and Albee, D. 2016. Goal-Setting Research cited by TIME, Forbes, Yahoo, Others. Press Releases. 3.
Jehan, S., et al .2017. Sleep, Melatonin, and the Menopausal Transition: What Are the Links? Sleep Science 10: 11-18.
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Mansell, P.I., et al. 1990. Enhanced Thermogenic Response to Epinephrine after 48-h Starvation in Humans. The American Journal of Physiology 258 (1 Point 2): R87-R93.
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Nair, K.S., et al. 1987. Leucine, Glucose, and Energy Metabolism after 3 Days of Fasting in Healthy Human Subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46: 557-562.
Nair, P.M., and Khawale, P.G. 2016. Role of Therapeutic Fasting in Women’s Health: An Overview. Journal of Mid-Life Health 7: 61-64.
Okamoto-Mizuno, K., and Mizuno, K. 2012. Effects of Thermal Environment on Sleep and Circadian Rhythm. Journal of Physiological Anthropology 31: 14.
Verheijden, M.W., et al. 2005. Role of Social Support in Lifestyle-Focused Weight Management Interventions. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 Supplement 1: S179-186.
Wilkinson, M.J., et al. 2020. Ten-Hour Time-Restricted Eating Reduces Weight, Blood Pressure, and Atherogenic Lipids in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Cell Metabolism 31: 92-104.
Woods, N.F., et al. 2009. Is the Menopausal Transition Stressful? Observations of Perceived Stress from the Seattle Midlife Women’s Health Study. Menopause 16: 90-97.

Chapter 9: Phase 1: Induction – Days 1 – 7

Arlorio, M., et al. 2009. Protective Activity of Theobroma Cacao L. Phenolic Extract on AML12 and MLP29 Liver Cells by Preventing Apoptosis and Inducing Autophagy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57: 10612-10618.
Boden, G., et al. 2005. Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Blood Glucose Levels, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Annals of Internal Medicine 42: 403-411.
Brennan, M.A., et al. 2012. Impact of Dietary Fibre-Enriched Ready-to-Eat Extruded Snacks on the Postprandial Glycaemic Response of Non-Diabetic Patients. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 56: 834-837.
Deng, S., et al. 2019. Targeting Autophagy Using Natural Compounds for Cancer Prevention and Therapy. Cancer 125: 1228-1246.
Gardner, C.D., et al. 2018. Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association with Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 319: 667-679.
Lascala, A., 2018. Analysis of Proautophagic Activities of Citrus Flavonoids in Liver Cells Reveals the Superiority of a Natural Polyphenol Mixture over Pure Flavones. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 58: 119-130.
Li, Y., et al. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity. Nutrients 8: 167.
Liu, Y., et al. 2019. New Insights for Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Aging and Aging-Related Diseases: Herbal Medicine as Potential Therapeutic Approach. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Published online December 12.
Martel, J., et al. 2019. Hormetic Effects of Phytochemicals on Health and Longevity. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 30: 335-346.
McCarty, M.F., et al. 2015. Ketosis May Promote Brain Macroautophagy by Activating Sirt1 and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1. Medical Hypotheses 85: 631-639.
Monsivais, P., et al. 2014. Time Spent on Home Food Preparation and Indicators of Healthy Eating. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 47: P796-802.
Oettle, G.J., et al. 1987. Glucose and Insulin Responses to Manufactured and Whole-Good Snacks. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45: 86-91.
Parvaresh, Rizi E., et al. 2018. A high Carbohydrate, but Not Fat or Protein Meal Attenuates Postprandial Ghrelin, PYY and GLP-1 Responses in Chinese Men. PLoS One 13: e0191609.
Samsel, A., and Seneff, S. 2013. Glyphosate, Pathways to Modern Diseases II: Celiac Sprue and Gluten Intolerance, Interdisciplinary Toxicology [6:15]9-184.
Stacchiotti, A., and Corsetti, G. 2020. Natural Compounds and Autophagy: Allies Against Neurodegeneration. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 8: 555409.
Stefani, M., and Rigacci, S. 2014. Beneficial Properties of Natural Phenols: Highlight on Protection against Pathological Conditions Associated with Amyloid Aggregation. Biofactors 40: 482-493.
Vendelbo, M.H., et al. 2010. Exercise and Fasting Activate Growth Hormone-Dependent Myocellular Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-5b Phosphorylation and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression in Humans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 95: E64-E68.

Chapter 10: Optimization: Days 8 – 37

Henning, S.M., et al. 2017. Health Benefit of Vegetable/Fruit Juice-Based Diet: Role of Microbiome. Scientific Reports 7: 2167.
Kamal, P. 2018. Maca, Summary of Maca., June 14.
Katz, D.L., et al. 2011. Cocoa and Chocolate in Human Health and Disease. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 15: 2779-2811.
Mantzoros, C.S. 1999. The Role of Leptin in Human Obesity and Disease: A Review of Current Evidence. Annals of Internal Medicine 130: 671-680.
Fruhbeck, G., et al. 2002. Leptin: Physiology and Pathophysiology. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 18: 399-419.

Chapter 11: Phase 3: Modification – Days 38 to 45

Gasior, M., et al. 2006. Neuroprotective and Disease-Modifying Effects of the Ketogenic Diet. Behavioural Pharmacology 17: 431-439.
Martin. B., et al. 2006. Caloric Restriction and Intermittent Fasting: Two Potential Diets for Successful Brain Aging. Ageing Research Reviews 5: 332-353.
Mattson, M.P., et al. 2004. BDNF and 5-HT: A Dynamic Duo in Age-Related Neuronal Plasticity and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Trends in Neurosciences 27: 589-594.
Stockman, M., et al. 2018. Intermittent Fasting: Is the Wait Worth the Weight? Current Obesity Reports 7: 172-185.
Wilhelmi de Toledo, F., et al. 2019. Safety, Health Improvement and Well-Being during a 4 to 21-Day Fasting Period in an Observational Study including 1422 Subjects. PLoS One 14: e0209353.

Chapter 12: Maintain Your Intermittent Fasting Lifestyle

Bird, S.R., and Hawley, J.A. 2017. Update on the Effects of Physical Activity on Insulin Sensitivity in Humans. BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine 2: e000143.
Donnelly, J. E., et al. 1991. Effects of a Very-Low-Calorie Diet and Physical-Training Regimens on Body Composition and Resting Metabolic Rate in Obese Females. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54: 56-61.
Harris, L., et al. 2018. Intermittent Fasting Interventions for Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports 16: 507-547.
Wing, R.R., and Phelan, S. 2005. Long-term weight loss maintenance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (1 Supplement): 222S-225S.